Complex surface mining equipment is used directly or as support in the mineral extraction process: Draglines. Shovels. Loaders. Haul Trucks. Surface mining, including strip mining, open pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels. In most forms of surface mining, heavy equipment, such as earthmovers, first remove the overburden. Next, large machines, such as dragline excavators or bucket wheel excavators, extract the mineral.
Specialised underground mining equipment such as diggers, loaders, and trucks are used to excavate raw materials and transferred to the surface with lifts for future processing. In order to place explosive charges, mining drills are required to free the minerals from overburden material.